He was checked by Predators defenceman Victor Bartley, who swung around and kicked Callahan's left leg into the boards on Tuesday night.
Callahan was in pain on the bench and then went toward the dressing room 10:54 into the period. The Rangers announced during the first intermission that Callahan wouldn't return. New York trailed 2-0 at the time.
Callahan played only four shifts and totalled just 3:28 of ice time. He wasn't on the ice for either of Nashville's early goals.
In 24 games, Callahan has seven goals and 13 points. He sat out the season opener following shoulder surgery and missed seven games between Oct. 19 and Nov. 2 because of a broken thumb.