Staal was injured 6:41 into the third after taking a shoulder to his upper body from Devils rookie Reid Boucher. Staal immediately got up and stormed off the ice in disgust.
The Rangers host the Washington Capitals on Sunday night. It is unknown if Staal will be able to play.
"He took a shoulder to the chin and didn't feel quite right," Rangers coach Alain Vigneault said after a 4-3 overtime loss to the Devils. "[The medical staff] is evaluating him. There's concern with any player when a situation like that happens. We'll know more [Sunday]."
Staal, 26, missed 36 games in 2011-12 due to a concussion and another 27 games last season due to an eye injury. If he's unable to play Sunday, the Rangers will likely turn to Michael Del Zotto, who was a healthy scratch Saturday.
Staal has two goals and one assist in 30 games this season.
"Marc's a real solid defender," Vigneault said. "With him and Ryan [McDonagh] back-to-back, I mean that's tough for the opposition when you've got two pretty solid left-handed defensemen. If for any reason he is not there [Sunday], then we've got some guys who have wanted the opportunity to get more ice time and a bigger role, and it'll be there for them. So let's see if they can grab it."