Little added his second goal of the game, and 10th of the season, midway through the third period.
The first-period barrage was the most goals the Jets have scored in a period since March 1, 2012, when they recorded five against Florida. It was only Winnipeg's second win in its last six games.
Pavelec had returned to action after being replaced the previous two games by Al Montoya.
The Predators, coming off road wins against Colorado and Los Angeles, move to 8-6-2.
Byfuglien's goal sent goalie Carter Hutton to the bench in favour of Marek Mazanec at 8:23. Mazanec, called up from Milwaukee of the AHL on Nov. 5 and playing in his first NHL game, turned aside 21 of the 23 shots he faced.
Hutton stopped five of the eight shots he faced in 8:23 of work.
Nashville is without veteran netminder Pekka Rinne, who was placed on injured reserve Oct. 24 with what's now being reported as an E. coli infection in his hip.
Winnipeg's scoring began with an unexpected move by Little that earned him his team-leading ninth goal.
After picking up a rebound in the slot off a shot by Ladd, Little moved to the face-off circle with his back to Hutton, but then spun around and fired the puck past the netminder at 3:02.
Jokinen scored his third of the season with a close wrist shot at 6:47 off a pass by Evander Kane.
Byfuglien then fired in his first goal of the season with a blast from the point and teammate Grant Clitsome screening Hutton on the play.
Mazanec entered the game and Setoguchi scored on his team's 11th shot of the night after Jokinen won the faceoff and passed the puck to his teammate in front of the net.
As the Jets left the ice for the first break, fans at MTS Centre gave them a standing ovation.
After a scoreless second period, the Predators were outshooting the Jets 24-23.
Little's second goal couldn't miss as Mazenec was stretching back across the front of the net to follow the rebound off a Ladd shot, but Little fired the puck over his body at 9:53 for the 5-0 gap.
Nashville was 0 for 4 on the power play and Winnipeg 0 for 3.
The fans gave the Jets another loud standing ovation during the final minute of the game.
Winnipeg hosts San Jose on Sunday, while Nashville continues its season-long, seven-game road trip with the fifth stop Sunday in New Jersey.