Trouba stumbled and fell face-first into the end boards behind the Blues' net after trying to hit St. Louis defenseman Jordan Leopold.
The Jets announced Trouba was alert and moving his extremities. He was taken to a hospital for X-rays, but the team said was released a few hours later.
"Thanks for the support," he said on his Twitter account early Saturday morning. "If you were wondering, the boards are not edible. I'll be back soon."
Trouba remained on the ice for several minutes before medical personnel removed him from the ice on a stretcher. Trouba was awake while leaving and managed a slight wave to the MTS Centre crowd.
"It was pretty scary," Jets coach Claude Noel said. "Anytime they call out a stretcher, it's never a good moment, regardless of which team it is."
The 19-year-old defenseman, whom the Jets chose ninth in the 2012 NHL Draft, joined the Winnipeg organization after one season at the University of Michigan.
Trouba has played in all of the Jets' eight games this season, with one goal and one assist.
The Jets also lost defenseman Mark Stuart to a lower-body injury early in the third period.
Thanks for the support. If you were wondering, the boards are not edible. I'll be back soon. #gojetsgo— Jacob Trouba (@JacobTrouba) October 19, 2013