Gaborik, who sustained a broken collarbone Dec. 21 against the Philadelphia Flyers, had hoped to return in time to play for his native Slovakia.
"I'm extremely disappointed that I won't be able to play for Slovakia at the Olympic Games but understand the decision is the right one for my recovery and for the national team," Gaborik said. "I have been lucky and proud to represent my country at two Olympic Games and other international tournaments and look forward to doing so again in the future."
Gaborik played for Slovakia in the previous two Olympics as well as at four IIHF World Championships (2001, 2004, 2005, 2007).
"Marian has worked extremely hard and done everything possible to rehabilitate his injury and return to the ice with the hope of representing his country in Sochi," Blue Jackets general manager Jarmo Kekalainen said. "We share his deep disappointment that he will not be able to do so but are optimistic that he will be fully recovered very soon."
Gaborik has five goals and 12 points in 18 games this season. He was in his first game back after missing 17 due to a knee injury when he sustained the broken collarbone.