The Avalanche (2-4), who outshot the Kings 30-14, rebounded from a 6-0 loss to Los Angeles (3-2-2) this week.
Duchene and Paul Stastny scored 54 seconds apart to give Colorado a 2-0 lead in the first period. The Avalanche pushed the edge to 4-0 when Duchene and David Jones netted power-play goals in a span of 29 seconds in the middle period. Duchene's goal came during a 5-on-3 advantage.
Simon Gagne cut the Kings' deficit to 4-1 with a power-play goal 54 seconds into the third period.